• Hiroshima Day commemorates 6 August 1945, the day when an atomic bomb was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima, followed a few days later by another dropped on the city of Nagasaki. • The bombings effectively ended World War II by bringing about the surrender of Japan, but at a terrible price – the two cities were destroyed and casualties, mostly civilians, were estimated at around 200,000, with many more people dying later from injuries and illness. • Hiroshima Day is now a focus for anti-war and anti-nuclear discussions and demonstrations. • On August 6, 1945, the American bomber Enola Gay dropped a five-ton bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. A blast equivalent to the power of 15,000 tons of TNT reduced four square miles of the city to ruins and immediately killed 80,000 people. Tens of thousands more died in the following weeks from wounds and radiation poisoning. Three days later, another bomb was dropped on the city of Nagasaki, killing nearly 40,000 more people. A few days later, Japan announced its surrender. • Hiroshima City • Hiroshima was a small fishing village. It was founded in 1589 on the banks of Ota River. During the Meiji Restoration in the year 1868, Hiroshima’s growth was speedy, and it soon transformed into a significant urban centre and industrial hub. Hiroshima officially became a city in the year 1889. In the imperial era, Hiroshima was a centre of military activities playing significant roles during the Sino – Japanese war, Russo – Japanese war and the two World wars. • This city is the best example of human cruelty and human grit. The restoration work would not have been possible for the government alone. It was a combined effort of the civilian and the government to restore the essential services as early as possible. • Nagasaki City • Nagasaki also was a small fishing village initially on the island of Kyushu in Japan. During the Meiji revolution, Nagasaki gained the status of a city on 1st April in the year 1889.